Amoxil 875 mg
However, the bacterium may be cultured from the blood and grown under controlled conditions in the laboratory, enabling identification of the causative microorganism.
In some cases, other laboratory studies may be used to help diagnose Carrion’s disease. Serological testing is used to diagnose trench fever.
However, it is difficult to diagnose in the laboratory, especially with blood cultures, since results are often negative even when infection is present and growth often takes 20-40 days.
Serological testing is the most cost-effective diagnostic tool in laboratory detection of bartonellosis when positive results are found. However, as previously discussed, false negatives can occur, leading to undiagnosed, untreated patients when further testing is not performed.
Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in blood serum to Bartonella henselae by Indirect Immunofluorescence Assays (IFA) is an accurate way to identify CSD. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears is used to detect B.
bacilliformis in patients who may have Carrion’s disease.
Other Bartonella species are visible only with silver stains (Warthin-Starry, Steiner, Dieterle), although they sometimes resist staining or are present in such low numbers as to not be detectable.
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is a molecular technique used to detect specific genetic material in blood. Because of the serological cross-reactivity between Bartonella species and other bacteria, PCR analysis of tissue and body fluid is the most specific diagnostic test, especially in identifying distinct genotypes among Bartonella species. Intradermal skin testing, using hypersensitivity reaction to B.
henselae antigen, is a test that is no longer used as more accurate testing is now available. Stains of biopsied tissue from lymph nodes examined microscopically may show small curved Gram-negative rods characteristic of B.
henselae , but this staining method is not a definitive diagnosis of CSD.
PCR of lymph nodes and other tissues, when used in conjunction with DNA sequencing, allows for diagnostic confirmation of Bartonella spp. Complications involving the liver and/or spleen are now identified more frequently with the use of improved serologic, PCR and diagnostic imaging tests.
Abdominal imaging is an important diagnostic tool for patients with suspected hepatosplenic disease and who present with prolonged fever. Treatment Cat scratch disease typically subsides without any treatment, usually within 2 to 4 months.
Antipyretics (fever reducers) and analgesics may be administered as needed. Local heat may be applied to the involved lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease usually has a very good prognosis, with no long-term health effects.
If the affected lymph node produces pus (suppurates) and becomes large and/or painful, it may be necessary to drain the node. Draining the pus through a needle (aspiration) is preferred over making an incision. Usually one aspiration is sufficient to relieve discomfort.
Antibiotics may be considered for severe or systemic disease.
Faster reduction of lymph node size has been demonstrated with a 5-day course of azithromycin.
Other antibiotics that have been considered effective include rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Bartonella henselae is generally resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin, and nafcillin. Doxycycline and rifampin in combination are the preferred medications for treating neuroretinitis. Effective antibiotic therapy for the complication of endocarditis should include an aminoglycoside prescribed for a minimum of 2 weeks followed by doxycycline or ceftriaxone for 6 weeks.
The treatment of choice for Oroya fever is administration of the antibiotic chloramphenicol (due to frequent,
intercurrent infection with Salmonella). Antibiotic therapy may rapidly treat acute febrile illness associated with Oroya fever.
Blood transfusions may be required to treat severe anemia. For antibiotic treatment of verruga peruana, rifampin and streptomycin are typically recommended. Other treatment for this disorder is symptomatic and supportive. Carrion’s disease may be prevented by avoiding the sandflies that transmit the bacterium to humans.
Insect repellents, bed nets, and long-acting insecticides can help prevent exposure to these insects.
Tetracycline-group antibiotics (doxycycline, tetracycline) are commonly used to treat trench fever. Uncomplicated disease responds to doxycycline and gentamicin.
Chloramphenicol is an alternative medication recommended when tetracycline usage is undesirable, such as in severe liver malfunction, kidney deficiency, in children under nine years and pregnant women. Macrolides and ceftriaxone amoxil capsule 250mg have also been effective.
A longer duration of treatment is recommended for immunocompromised patients and when the liver or other organs are involved.
In patients with AIDS and bacillary angiomatosis, the primary choices of antibiotics are erythromycin or doxycycline.
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