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What is KALETRA?

KALETRA is a prescription medicine that is used with other antiretroviral medicines to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and children 14 days of age and older. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

What is antiretroviral therapy (ART)?

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) refers to medicines that treat HIV. An HIV regimen is a combination of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. An HIV regimen combines antiretroviral drugs from at least two different drug classes. There are seven antiretroviral drug classes, grouped according to how the drug works to attack the virus:
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
  • Protease inhibitors (PIs)
  • Fusion inhibitors
  • CCR5 antagonists
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs)
  • Post-attachment inhibitors

Kaletra is a medicine for coronavirus COVID-19?

The composition of the drug Kaletra includes such drugs as Lopanovir and Ritonavir. They enhance human immunity. Immunity - this is the cure for coronavirus. If you strengthen the immune system, then defeat COVID-19.

Dosage and Direction

There are plenty of variables in the dosage of Kaletra, and those variables are based on the patient. These include the age of the patient, their overall health, and the progress of HIV within the patient. This drug has been proven safe to use on all people over 14 days old, though dosing amounts would be lower or higher based on the considerations specifically mentioned above.

Precautions

If you are trying to get pregnant, are pregnant, or breastfeeding you should speak with your doctor before taking Kaletra (Lopanivor 200mg/Ritonavir 50 mg). You should not use this drug in conjuction with alcohol and should avoid breastfeeding if you are HIV positive as HIV can be passed to your child via breastmilk. Understand that Kaletra (Lopanivor 200mg/Ritonavir 50 mg) will not prevent the spread of HIV to other people, so be sure to exercise caution in all of your activities whether others may contract the virus.

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Already on the fifth day, in all six patients, tests for coronavirus yielded a negative result, which was confirmed on the following days. That is, all patients with COVID-19 in the test group were completely cured in five days.
The remaining 14 patients took orally 200 milligrams of hydroxychloroquine sulfate three times a day for ten days. Six of them, in addition to hydroxychloroquine, received 500 milligrams of azithromycin per day for the first two days to prevent superinfection, and then 250 milligrams for four days. All six patients tolerated the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin well. An electrocardiogram was given to them daily to control the absence of side effects on the heart.
1. Coronavirus is transmitted by mosquito bites
The only treatment for HIV that can stop the development of HIV infection and prevent the stage of AIDS is antiretroviral therapy (ART).
This therapy consists of several drugs that are taken daily. These drugs act on the virus, blocking the substances (enzymes) that it needs for reproduction.

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme.

General Information on Kaletra

1. Depending on the state of health, as a rule, once every 6 months, an examination by an infectious disease specialist is recommended. At this appointment, the patient receives the main recommendations and directions for a number of examinations listed below.
AbbVie’s HIV med Kaletra (Aluvia), a combination of antiviral drugs lopinavir and ritonavir, failed across the board in a 199-patient clinical trial. It didn’t top standard of care at improving clinical symptoms, extending lifespan or cutting viral shedding in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19, results from a study published Wednesday in The New England Journal of Medicine show.
When prescribing antiretroviral therapy, it is very important not to skip taking drugs and take them on time. Otherwise, the level of drugs in the blood may become lower than optimal, the virus will again begin to multiply. Virus species that become resistant to these drugs will survive, and therapy will cease to function.
Classes of Antiretroviral Drugs
association

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

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Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are phosphorylated active metabolites that fight to penetrate viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme on the basis of competition and stop the synthesis of DNA chains.
Stribield: elvitegravir 150 mg, cobicistat 150 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, taken orally 1 time / day with meals
COVID-19: Secondary Attack Rate / Equivocal Lopinavir-Ritonavir Results


Coronavirus 2019-nCoV
Though they called the results “disappointing,” Baden and Rubin pointed to the fact that the team chose a challenging population to study, because the patients recruited were already late in the disease course and already had major tissue damage. “Even highly active antibacterial agents have limited efficacy in advanced bacterial pneumonia,” they wrote.
Studies conducted in people who have previously taken protease inhibitors also suggest that Kaletra has similar efficacy to other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. One study found that Kaletra and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir had similar outcomes in terms of viral loads and CD4 cell counts, despite less favourable effects on blood lipids with Kaletra. (Johnson)

In laboratory tests, all three drugs showed activity against SARS-CoV-2, and chloroquine is now used as the recommended antiviral agent for treating COVID-19 in China. However, for the introduction of any of these drugs into practice, clinical trials are needed.


Chinese scientists and Gilead Sciences are also examining the latter’s antiviral drug remdesivir, which has so far shown the most promise against the novel coronavirus.

The researchers were unclear why fewer participants on Kaletra-based triple therapy achieved viral loads below 50 copies/ml at week 96, compared with those on efavirenz-based triple therapy, since they found that the time to treatment-limiting toxicity was similar for all arms, and the proportion of grade 3 or 4 clinical adverse events was similar in each arm, at around 20%.
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Scientists have found a cure for coronavirus


© Gautret et al., 2020 / IHU Méditerranée Infection

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However, in order for this or that method to receive official recognition, it is necessary first to conduct laboratory tests, and then test it on a large number of patients.
Concomitant diseases (e.g., hepatic or renal dysfunction)
5. Chest x-ray or fluorography once every 6 months. This is an important point. This examination will help rule out tuberculosis.
HIV TREATMENT
“We should look specifically for patients that initiated remdesivir fast enough,” he argued. “[T]he entire purpose of [the] trial is to define that dosing window.”


In other COVID-19 news:
"According to the available scientific information, the drug Plaquenil is potentially effective in the treatment of COVID-19 disease, so it is necessary to prevent its inaccessibility," said Adam Vojtech.
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RELATED: China repurposes AbbVie HIV drug as Big Pharma rallies to combat deadly coronavirus
In China, authorities are urging citizens who have successfully recovered from the Covid-19 virus to donate their blood voluntarily, hoping that the antibodies present in it will help seriously ill patients get out of a critical state.


ART is usually effective if patients take their medication> 95% of the time.
The number of patients with COVID-19 increased sharply in Kiev: how they got infected An unexpected turn: scientists knew about coronavirus long before the epidemic

The study involved 36 adult patients, both with and without COVID-19 symptoms, for whom SARS-CoV-2 carriage in the nasopharynx sample was confirmed. Of those who did not agree to take new drugs, a control group of 16 people was made up, and they continued, as before, to prescribe symptomatic treatment and antibiotics to prevent bacterial superinfection.
Opportunistic diseases are diseases that can occur in the late stages of HIV infection with a weakened immune system. Some of them develop only with HIV infection, others in combination with HIV take on a particularly severe, life-threatening form. Treatment of opportunistic diseases in HIV infection is carried out with drugs approved for use in the Russian Federation, in accordance with the recommendations and instructions for their use.


Many patients living with HIV are treated according to a combination regimen that includes taking several tablets. Thanks to the availability of new combination drugs for treating HIV infection, many patients could take advantage of the simplification of their ART regimen, guided by the DNA DNA archive genotype testing [GenoSure Archive].
Restoring the CD4 cell count to normal (restoration or reconstruction of immunity)
Edited by David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH, and Lorenzo Di Francesco, MD, FACP, FHM

Your doctor will give you specific recommendations regarding the use of the drug. Doctors generally recommend patients to take this medication once or twice daily. You can take the medication with or without food, but it is advisable to take the tablet with a light snack or meal.

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Currently, about 23.3 million people worldwide are receiving treatment for HIV. To date, the life expectancy of an HIV-infected person taking antiretroviral drugs does not differ from the life expectancy of a healthy person of the same age. Antiretroviral therapy gives better results if you start it immediately after infection, without delaying until the onset of symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy saves lives and serves to prevent HIV-related diseases and the development of disability. The number of AIDS-related deaths in the world has been reduced by 43% since 2003. In addition, antiretroviral therapy has a prophylactic effect. If an HIV-positive person takes antiretroviral drugs, the risk of HIV transmission to his HIV-negative sexual partner is reduced by 96%.

Other prescribed drugs (to avoid drug interactions)

In social networks, a lot of information circulates on folk remedies for protection against coronavirus. Alcohol, garlic, sesame oil or hot tea / coffee will not save you from coronavirus, doctors say today. The initial assumption that the virus was dying in a warm climate was also not justified. Africa and Latin America have relatively few officially recognized cases, but this is only because not all countries test for coronavirus. It is also not proven that very low temperatures can kill the coronavirus. The light of an ultraviolet lamp will not help either.
By the way, earlier in the media there was information that the drug Arbidol of Russian production, which was launched back in the USSR, is struggling with coronavirus, but its effectiveness has not yet been definitely proven.

2. Particles of coronavirus can remain in the air for a long time

Odefsey: Emtricitabine 200 mg, Rilpivirin 25

Because it was one of the earliest clinical trials of COVID-19—the first patients enrolled on Jan. 18, just a week after SARS-CoV-2 had been identified and sequenced—little was known about the virus. And the patients had already been showing symptoms for about two weeks when they entered the study.
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3. In some countries came up with a vaccine and a cure for coronavirus

Kaletra is a prescription medication and may cause side effects if used for unintended purposes. Therefore, you should buy Kaletra only on doctor’s recommendation.
Integrase inhibitors prevent HIV DNA from being integrated into human DNA.
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This is not true. If the carrier of the coronavirus coughs or sneezes, then the spray can spread several meters. Therefore, it is important that the infected person wear a mask. Since coronavirus particles are rather heavy, they settle to the ground rather quickly and cannot remain in the air for a long time.

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A comparative study of Kaletra and ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir showed equivalence in terms of the proportion of people achieving undetectable viral loads, although Kaletra may be superior in terms of the magnitude of viral suppression. (Yates)
“Honestly, I want to see a further sub-cut of this data … perhaps for patients that initiated [Kaletra] less than eight days from symptom onset,” Raffat said.
Chemoprophylaxis (preventive therapy) of secondary diseases in patients with HIV infection is carried out according to epidemiological, clinical and immunological indications. To prevent the development of opportunistic infections, prophylactic treatment is prescribed mainly with antimicrobial agents. Such drugs do not act on the immunodeficiency virus itself. They serve only to prevent the development of opportunistic infections.
By Kelly Young

Moreover, if scientists succeed in developing a vaccine in a short time, there is no guarantee that it will work in a few years. The virus can mutate, and then a new vaccine formula will be needed. It is already known that there are so-called “two forms” of coronavirus, one of which is less resistant and dies faster than the other. As scientists suggest, this is why some carriers of coronavirus do not show external symptoms, and some suffer a severe illness. However, one patient from Australia immediately found two varieties of coronavirus.


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Pharmacies do not sell medicine unless the patient’s diagnosis and medical specialization are indicated in the prescription. The medicine is also not prescribed for more than two months.

Since disease-related complications can occur in untreated patients with high CD4 counts, less toxic drugs have been developed, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is currently recommended for almost all patients. The benefits of ART outweigh the risks in each patient group; rigorous studies have been conducted on this issue.
In a separate editorial that ran alongside the study, infectious disease specialists Lindsey Baden, director of clinical research at Brigham and Women’s Hospital; and NEJM Editor-in-Chief Eric Rubin also looked for silver linings.
8. In addition, if there are complaints or any pathology, the infectious disease specialist can refer the patient for consultations with other doctors - a gynecologist for women, a dentist, a dermatovenerologist, and a TB doctor. It is not recommended to neglect this recommendation. Often, earlier detection of concomitant HIV infections allows for quick and effective treatment.

To completely suppress wild-type HIV replication, combinations of 2, 3, or 4 drugs of various classes are usually required. Specific drugs are selected based on the following factors:
Antiretroviral treatment regimens
In fact, if we zero in on patients that received Kaletra earlier, a clearer mortality benefit shows up. According to the study, the death rate in Kaletra patients was 15.0% at day 28, versus 27.1% among placebo patients, provided therapy started within 12 days of symptoms starting, Raffat noted. When all modified intention-to-treat patients are analyzed, the difference narrowed to 16.7% versus 25.0%.
Coronavirus can be brought from space, the scientist believes


5. Conspiracy Theories
The global case count is now above 90,000 with over 3000 deaths, according to the World Health Organization. Twelve new countries reported their first case in the past day.
Other drugs recommended by the Chinese guidance include an influenza med called Arbidol (umifenovir) that’s not approved in Western countries, the standard malaria drug chloroquine, as well as old antiviral ribavirin and interferon-alpha, among others.
Lopinavir and ritonavir inhibit protease, an enzyme HIV and coronaviruses use to replicate. The combo first attracted interest after a pulmonary and critical care physician dispatched to Wuhan said Kaletra had healed his disease. China’s National Health Commission soon added the med to its COVID-19 clinical guidance and has kept it there in all its subsequent updates.
French scientists conducted the first clinical studies of the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with the antibiotic azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19. Studies were conducted at the Méditerranée Infection Hospital of the University of Marseille.

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Kaletra-based regimens appear to be more potent than single protease inhibitor-based regimens in people who have not previously taken HIV treatment. For example, head-to-head studies have shown that Kaletra is more potent than nelfinavir (Viracept) and atazanavir (Reyataz).
Coronavirus has infected more than 300 thousand people in the world. 73 people were infected in Ukraine, three of them died. In the Czech Republic, they said they found a cure for COVID-19. This was announced by the Czech Minister of Health Adam Vojtech on the air of one of the TV channels. He said that this is the anti-malarial drug Plaquenil of the pharmaceutical company Sanofi Aventis. According to him, this medicine is effective in fighting infection.

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That’s “very long,” Raffat said, noting that Roche’s flu drug Tamiflu needs to be initiated less than two days from symptom onset.
K aletra has also been compared to other ritonavir (Norvir)-boosted protease inhibitors. For example, the MaxCmin2 study found that Kaletra is superior to ritonavir-boosted saquinavir (Invirase), with fewer people taking Kaletra dropping out due to side-effects. (Dragsted) In contrast, the KLEAN study found that Kaletra is of similar effectiveness to ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir (Telzir). (Eron, 2006)
3. Medicines designed to prevent the development of opportunistic infections (drugs for the prevention of preventive therapy).
In early February, the World Health Organization called the spread of fake coronavirus "infoemia." But despite the warnings, in social networks false information continues to spread. We have collected the most common fakes in France - with some explanations.
Mostly, studies are built around two groups of drugs: remdesivir, an intravenous drug with broad antiviral activity that inhibits virus replication by stopping RNA transcription prematurely, and antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.
Each patient who has been diagnosed with HIV infection is recommended regular monitoring by specialists and the implementation of their recommendations for successful treatment of HIV - Kaletra (Lopinavir 200mg + Ritonavir 50mg).

The latest news and research on HIV treatment
March 20, 06:16

Tablets containing fixed combinations of ≥2 drugs are currently widely used to simplify treatment regimens and improve compliance. Accepted drug combinations include
As we previously wrote, Ulyana Suprun spoke in detail about the process of creating a medicine, which is one of the most anticipated inventions in the history of mankind.

Physicians at China’s Jin Yin-tan Hospital in the city of Wuhan—which was until recently the epicenter of the outbreak—therefore concluded that Kaletra doesn’t offer additional benefits over standard care in COVID-19. But Evercore ISI analyst Umer Raffat begs to disagree.
As far as science knows today, not one of the respiratory viruses is transmitted by mosquitoes.
Studies have examined the effects of combining Kaletra with the protease inhibitors saquinavir, indinavir (Crixivan) and atazanavir, with results indicating that these combinations are safe and effective. (Staszewski, ICAAC 2003) (Stephan) (Staszewski, IAS 2003) (Duvivier)
A paediatric tablet formulation of the drug was approved for paediatric use in the US in 2007 and in the EU in 2008 containing 100mg lopinavir plus 25mg ritonavir. Unlike the the oral formulation, Kaletra tablets can be taken with or without food and do not require refrigeration.


Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, Aluvia) is a protease inhibitor drug available in tablet and solution form. Lopinavir is marketed only with a boosting dose of ritonavir; ritonavir is marketed separately as Norvir.
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Scientists note that, despite the fact that the test group was very small, and to confirm the results, more extensive clinical trials are necessary, the results are very encouraging.
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The most ridiculous fakes on the Internet can be considered the publication that children's urine (after all, children practically do not get coronavirus) can protect adults as well. And the most harmful fakes are the information that smoking tobacco or marijuana prevents the virus from entering the lungs.

TABLE
3. Biochemical and general blood tests. These are standard tests that determine the functioning of organs and the state of the body. Recommended at least 2 times a year or 1 time in 3 months.
Side effects of Kaletra
Keith Alcorn

2. Medicines for the treatment of opportunistic diseases;
Lipodystrophy (lipoatrophy) in HIV
Kaletra is available in the form of a tablet and an oral solution. The tablets are available in two strengths which are color coded for easy identification. The yellow tablet contains 200mg of Lopinavir and 50mg of Ritonavir while the pale yellow colored tablet contains 100 mg of Lopinavir and 25 mg of Ritonavir. The oral solution contains 80 mg Lopinavir and 20 mg Ritonavir per milliliter.
By intent-to-treat analysis, 89% of the participants receiving efavirenz-based triple therapy had viral loads below 50 copies/ml after 96 weeks, as compared with 77% receiving Kaletra-based triple therapy. (Riddler)
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According to him, the drug Plaquenil is not prescribed so simply for all doctors, with the exception of specialists in the field of allergology, clinical immunology, dermatovenereology and rheumatology, as well as infectologists.
Truvada: emtricitabine 200 mg plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, taken 1 time / day orally with food or on an empty stomach
Scientists have found a cure for coronavirus
There are many drugs that inhibit the reproduction of HIV. However, if any of these drugs are used alone, over time, it no longer acts on HIV. The virus becomes insensitive to it (doctors call this phenomenon the resistance of the virus to drugs, or the resistance of the virus). Using several drugs in combination at the same time, you can minimize the risk of developing virus resistance. This treatment is called combination antiretroviral therapy. If the virus nevertheless becomes resistant to the combination of drugs used, a new active combination of drugs is prescribed
Civil society activists, in close collaboration with researchers and national regulators, have achieved an unprecedented increase in investment in AIDS research and accelerated the launch of new drugs. Thanks to this, patients now have faster access to new drugs and their combinations. Certain pressure from the global AIDS movement also led to a rapid decline in the price of new drugs, making them affordable for almost all countries.
Protease inhibitors suppress the viral protease enzyme, which is crucial for the maturation of immature HIV virions after they are budged from the host cells.


To put it into perspective, as of Thursday, China has reported 81,263 infections of the novel coronavirus, with 3,250 deaths. That translates into an overall mortality rate of 4%, far lower than the double-digit percentages seen in the Kaletra trial.

MONARK, a prospective, open-label, randomized, 96-week trial comparing the safety and efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy with a standard lopinavir/ritonavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine regimen as an initial treatment regimen in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA levels less than 100,000 copies/ml. At the week 48 on-treatment analysis, 80% in the monotherapy group and 95% of those on triple therapy achieved a viral load less than 400 copies/ml (intent to treat analysis was 64 v 75% respectively). This indicates that monotherapy should not be considered as a preferred treatment option for use in antiretroviral-naive patients. (Delfraissy)

The most exotic conspiracy theory is the rumor that the kronavirus mutated under the influence of new technologies. More specifically: it was in the capital of the Chinese province of Hubei, in Wuhan, that the new-generation 5G telecommunications began to operate just a few weeks before the advent of coronavirus. The basis for these rumors was information about unexplained death.
The drug is a combination of two medications, Lopinavir and low dose Ritonavir. Lopinavir belongs to a group of medicines known as protease inhibitors. It inhibits activity of HIV protease, a chemical essential for HIV cells to multiply. Ritonavir suppresses the metabolism of Lopinavir which helps in keeping increased levels of Lopinavir in the blood.
March 23, 03:05
Kaletra is made by Abbott Laboratories. Lopinavir was developed under the codename ABT-378 and approved for marketing in the United States in 2000 and in the European Union in 2001. A heat-stable, film-coated tablet was approved in the US in 2005 and in the EU in 2006, replacing the original gelatin capsule. Each tablet contains 200mg lopinavir plus 50mg ritonavir.

Triumek: Dolutegravir 50 mg, lamivudine 300 mg in combination with abacavir 600 mg, taken orally 1 time / day with meals or on an empty stomach
Treatment of an HIV-infected patient begins much earlier than AIDS develops. The fact is that even in the absence of signs of the disease, noticeable to the sick person or doctor, HIV actively affects the body. Therefore, treatment initiated on time helps a person to feel healthy longer, prevents the development of opportunistic infections and tumor diseases.
Decreased plasma RNA levels of HIV to an undetermined value (i.e., <20-50 copies / ml)
Atripla: efavirenz 600 mg, 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg plus 200 mg emtricitabine orally 1 time / day on an empty stomach, preferably before bedtime



In France, the head of the Mediterranean Institute of Infectious Diseases in Marseille said that Chloroquine, which has long been used to treat malaria, has been shown to be effective in treating coronavirus Covid-19.
Coronavirus medicine tested successfully in France

Descovi: emtricitabine 200 mg plus tenofovir alafenamide fumarate 25 mg, taken 1 time / day orally with food or on an empty stomach
resistance

Recall that the WHO has repeatedly stated that a cure for COVID-19 has not yet been found. Scientists all over the world are trying to create a vaccine against coronavirus, but many experts claim that humanity will overcome the infection only by natural immunization, that is, when a larger population is ill with coronavirus and the body develops antibodies to the virus.
Many classes of antiretroviral drugs are used as part of antiretroviral drugs. One class inhibits the penetration of HIV, others inhibit 1 of the 3 HIV enzymes necessary for replication within the human cell; all 3 classes inhibit reverse transcriptase, blocking its RNA-dependent and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity.

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Kaletra may also cause side effects by interacting with Insulin or diabetes medication taken orally, narcotic medicines such as Methadone, Fentanyl, seizure medicines such as Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, Sildenafil, Vardenafil, Tadalafil and other HIV /AIDS medications such as Nelfinavir, Efavirenz, Nevirapine, Fosamprenavir and others.
In ACTG 5142, patients received one of three regimens: efavirenz+ 2 NRTIs, Kaletra (LPV/r) + 2 NRTIs, or an NRTI-sparing combination of efavirenz and Kaletra. The NRTI options were 3TC or FTC combined with stavudine (d4T), TDF, or zidovudine (ZDV). At the start of the study, the median viral load was approximately 100,000 copies/ml and the median CD4 cell count was 182 cells/mm3, suggesting that the study population had relatively advanced HIV disease and was starting treatment later than current guidelines recommended.
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Kaletra (Lopinavir 200mg + Ritonavir 50mg) When HIV is infected, a person is prescribed treatment with which you can delay the development of AIDS and opportunistic diseases, and some of the latter can be cured.
Lab worker in France handling specimen samples from a potentially coronavirus infected patient
Kaletra may cause mild to severe side effects in some people. Vomiting, weakness, tingling or numbness, especially around the mouth, mild nausea, bloating, mild skin rashes, stomach pain, mood changes, diarrhea, headache, changes in location of body fat ( especially in your neck, arms, face, legs, waist or breast) are some less severe side effects associated with Kaletra.
Effectiveness

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Some patients in the original study of Kaletra in treatment-naive patients have been taking the drug for over six years, with persistently undetectable viral loads. (Gulick) The strength of current evidence in favour of Kaletra has led experts in the United Kingdom and the United States to recommend Kaletra as a preferred first-line protease inhibitor.
Therefore, ART is designed to be taken continuously.
Without an approved drug to tackle the novel coronavirus, scientists and biopharma companies are busy looking to repurpose existing therapies. One of the earliest efforts in that direction seems to have hit a snag—but at least one analyst refuses to call it a dead end.

Scientists announced the discovery of the nature of the new coronavirus

Today, HIV is a chronic disease, and HIV treatment is a long process, but subject to a number of conditions, life expectancy and its quality are unlimited.
The secondary attack rate for SARS-CoV-2 — the virus causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) — is under 1% among close contacts of U.S. patients, according to findings in MMWR.
Genoa: elviltegravir 150 mg, cobicistat 150 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg plus tenofovir alafenamide fumarate 10 mg, taken orally 1 time per day with meals
The end of quarantine in Ukraine: Zelensky was given a date


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Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra)

Because of its long half-life and high genetic barrier to resistance, Kaletra has been investigated as an option for monotherapy in treatment-naive and -experienced patients. At least three studies have demonstrated that switching from Kaletra or efavirenz (Sustiva) plus two NRTIs to Kaletra monotherapy leads to comparable virologic outcomes to patients randomised to remain on triple therapy after up to 48 weeks, with similar rates of resistance and blood fat elevations. (Arribas, IAS 2005) (Campos) (Nunes) (Cameron) (Arribas, IAC 2006) However, these trials have generally found inferior levels of viral suppression to trials of combination therapy including Kaletra. (Chan-Track)
Kaletra is a powerful anti-HIV drug. Studies suggest that approximately 75 to 90% of people who start treatment with Kaletra plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) achieve a viral load below 400 copies/ml after one year, and 70% maintain viral loads below 50 copies/ml after four years. (Murphy) (Walmsley) (Lichterfeld) (Hicks)
1. Medicines that directly affect the virus, its life cycles that interfere with its reproduction (antiretroviral drugs or antiretroviral drugs (ARV drugs));
The results of clinical trials. Percentage of patients with a positive nasopharyngeal coronavirus test by day: black - control group, blue - patients taking hydroxychloroquine only, green - patients taking hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin

It is also interesting that one patient who received only hydroxychloroquine and was not cured started taking azithromycin on the eighth day of the study, and on the ninth day her samples for the virus were already negative.
2. A blood test for immune status (level of immunity) and viral load (the amount of HIV in the blood). These are the most important tests for an HIV-positive patient. They determine the degree of progression of the disease and allow you to determine the start of treatment. Recommended at least 2 times a year or 1 time in 3 months.
(See also Treatment in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection))
To maximize adhesion, clinicians should choose a well-tolerated regimen that is prescribed as 1 time / day (preferred) or 2 times / day. The recommendations of the expert team on the initiation, selection, switching and interruption of therapy and certain restrictions regarding the treatment of women and children are regularly changed and updated on the website www.aidsinfo. nih.gov.

RELATED: Roche launches clinical trial of COVID-19 pneumonia hopeful Actemra after backing from China
Recent studies have shown that levels of lopinavir in the cerebrospinal fluid are low, but they are sufficient to inhibit HIV replication in patients who are adherent to Kaletra. (Capparelli) (Yilmaz) (Martin)
Expected Side Effects



Lipodystrophy (lipoatrophy) in HIV
The following drugs are used to treat HIV infection:
Some people may also experience severe side effects such as headache with severe blistering, easy bleeding/bruising, fever, skin rashes, peeling of the skin, extreme thirst, increased urination, sore throat, severe pain in upper stomach that spreads to back, dark urine, vomiting, low fever, clay colored stools, or yellowing of the eyes or skin. Consult your doctor immediately if you notice or experience any severe side effects after taking a dose of Kaletra.


Public health officials actively monitored 445 people who had close contact with one of 10 U.S. patients with travel-related COVID-19. Over 14 days, 12% of contacts developed new or worsening symptoms and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Two contacts — household members — tested positive. The overall symptomatic secondary attack rate was estimated to be 0.45% for close contacts and 10.5% for household members. The researchers write: "Despite intensive follow-up, no sustained person-to-person transmission of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was observed."
Modern ARVT cannot completely destroy HIV in the body, but it preserves life and health for people with HIV, preventing the virus from harming the immune system. When taking antiretroviral therapy, the viral load becomes undetectable and remains so while a person is taking treatment. At the same time, HIV infection is “neutralized” and the immune status ceases to decline. Unfortunately, if a person stops taking therapy, the viral load immediately begins to increase.
In the Czech Republic, they found a drug that can fight coronavirus
Bin Cao, the lead author of the Kaletra study, is also leading the Chinese clinical study on remdesivir—and that has Evercore ISI’s Raffat concerned that the overall remdesivir trial may be presented the same way.
4. A blood test to determine the markers of viral hepatitis, as well as serological tests for the detection of syphilis, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma, herpes. These are tests for viral infections that can be detected and treated on time.

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Basically, the team shouldn’t look at overall results from the study, Raffat argued in a Wednesday note to clients.
French scientists have reported successful clinical trials of a combination of two existing drugs - hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin - against the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. A description is provided in the journal International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents.



protease

To increase availability of N95 respirators, certain industrial respirators approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) that aren't currently regulated by the FDA can now be used by healthcare workers.

Scientists have discovered a cure for coronavirus (Collage RBC-Ukraine)

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STYLER ›Coronavirus 03/23/2020 - 08: 49New Ukrainian
If you are using other medicines then there is a possibility that Kaletra may interact with them and cause side effects. It may interact with medications such as Bosentan, Colchicines, Fluticasone, Salmeterol, Rifabutin, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Voriconazole, Bupropion, Trazodone, Warfarin, cancer medications such as Nilotinib or Dasatinib, cholesterol-lowering medications such as Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin, Cyclosporine, Tacrolimus, heart or blood pressure medications such as Amlodipine, Diltiazem, Nifedipine, Verapamil,and, and others, heart rhythm medicines such as Amiodarone, Quinidine.

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This is not so. In China, Russia, and Israel, for example, scientists said they found the vaccine, but it will take several months to test it. So to its widespread use is still far.


Entrance inhibitors, sometimes called synthesis inhibitors, interfere with the attachment of HIV to CD4 + receptors and parallel chemokine receptors; this attachment is required for HIV to enter the cells. For example, CCR-5 inhibitors block the CCR-5 receptor.
Komplera: rilpivirin 25 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg orally 1 time / day with meals
Because nobody knows when a patient's SARS-CoV-2 viral load peaks, the study should have focused on “identifying the time point up until which an antiviral may work,” he said.
The same applies to the means of treatment. To date, there is no universally recognized and approved WHO drug for coronavirus. In different countries, however, they tried to treat him with various available drugs.
6. Skin test Mantoux or Diaskin test 1 time per year. This is a simple examination method that can detect the most dangerous tuberculosis disease at an early stage and undergo treatment.
The results of clinical trials. Percentage of patients with a positive nasopharyngeal coronavirus test by day: black - control group, blue - patients taking hydroxychloroquine only, green - patients taking hydroxychloroquine in combination with azithromycin
If the treatment is unsuccessful, then drug susceptibility tests (resistance) are performed on all available drugs. Genotype analyzes also help in the diagnosis.


Protease inhibitors block the activity of the HIV protease (or proteinase) enzyme to slow HIV replication and delay damage to the immune system.
But perhaps the more worrisome data lies in Kaletra’s inability to cut viral load, which is important because the drug is meant to directly target the virus rather than merely relieving symptoms. At day 28, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was still detected in 40.7% of the patients on Kaletra.
Safer and more effective antiretroviral drugs and their combinations are constantly appearing, including those available to low- and middle-income countries. The standard first-line antiretroviral therapy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for adults and adolescents includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or integrase inhibitor. Fixed-dose combinations and a once-daily treatment regimen are preferred.
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Simplicity of the circuit
In JAMA, researchers present a case series of 18 patients with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. Five patients who required supplemental oxygen also received lopinavir-ritonavir: three experienced a reduction in the need for supplemental oxygen within 3 days, while two saw their condition worsen after initiating the drugs. For all patients, the median duration of viral shedding in nasopharyngeal samples was 12 days. The virus was detected in the stool of half the patients tested.
4. Folk remedies for coronavirus
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There is encouraging evidence that Kaletra is an effective component of salvage therapy. For example, Kaletra and nevirapine (Viramune) plus NRTIs suppressed viral load below 400 copies/ml in 70% patients after 48 weeks. (Benson) Similar effects were observed when Kaletra was combined with efavirenz (Sustiva), with 65% of patients having undetectable viral loads after 48 weeks. (Kempf, 2002)

ART aims to
March 2011




The CDC is now reporting 108 cases, including 48 who were repatriated back to the U.S. This is a 1-day increase of about 20. The death toll in Washington State has risen from six to nine.
Kaletra is used in treatment of HIV infections, which may result in AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The drug is not intended to cure HIV or AIDS, but to prevent HIV cells from multiplying in the body. It may be used alone or in conjunction with other HIV medications as part of HIV/AIDS treatment.


DIAGNOSIS, DOCTORS, ALL EXAMINATIONS AND TREATMENT OF HIV ARE CARRIED OUT FREE OF CHARGE, AT THE expense of THE STATE!
Before you buy Kaletra, tell doctor about every medication are using. Tell him/her about prescription drugs, over the counter medications, and herbal supplements you are using.
Coronavirus
Competitive nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme, as do nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, but do not require initial phosphorylation.

7. An ultrasound of the abdominal cavity is recommended to be done 1 time per year. This examination characterizes the general condition of the internal organs.
Interactions
A vaccination against pneumonia or seasonal flu will also not reduce the risk of coronavirus infection. And even more so, antibiotics that kill bacteria, not viruses.

Earlier this month, AbbVie said it’s collaborating with health authorities, including the U.S. FDA, to determine Kaletra's antiviral activity in COVID-19 patients, as well as efficacy and safety.
To date, there are no special drugs designed to treat COVID-19. Moreover, in several hundreds of clinical trials that are conducted around the world, the effect of existing drugs approved for other indications on the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is studied.


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Glossary
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According to some “conspiracy theories,” the coronavirus was developed in the United States in order to weaken China, or vice versa in Russia, in order to weaken Western democracy.
In Thailand, doctors at the capital's Rajawiti Hospital said they were able to cure two patients who received a severe form of coronavirus. For treatment, doctors used a combination of several medications: Lopinavir and Ritonavir, which is usually prescribed for patients suffering from HIV infection, and Oseltamivir, a medication used to treat or prevent type A and B flu.
AIDS was discovered in 1981, and the cause of its occurrence, the HIV retrovirus, in 1983. Since then, dozens of antiretroviral drugs have been developed to treat HIV. Different classes of antiretroviral drugs act differently on the HIV virus, and with a combination of different drugs, the effectiveness of the control of the virus increases significantly and the likelihood of developing drug resistance decreases. The modern standard approach for all patients diagnosed with HIV is treatment with at least three different antiretroviral drugs. Antiretroviral combination therapy prevents the virus from multiplying and can completely remove it from the blood. This allows the immune system to recover, fight infections and prevent the development of AIDS and other long-term effects of HIV.

Once on a hard, dry surface, the coronavirus lives only a few hours, and on moist surfaces for several days. Therefore, the fears of the French when buying goods arrived from China are unfounded. But on hand-to-hand money, microparticles of the coronavirus can remain for several hours. Coronavirus enters the human body through the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and eyes. Therefore, the most reliable way to protect French doctors call regular hand washing.