Amoxicillin & clavulanic acid
Linda Carroll is a regular health contributor to NBC News and Reuters Health.
She is coauthor of "The Concussion Crisis: Anatomy of a Silent Epidemic" and "Out of the Clouds: The Unlikely Horseman and the Unwanted Colt Who Conquered the Sport of Kings." New study suggests antibiotics can weaken the immune system.
As more strains of bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, scientists are warning that we could soon return to the "dark ages of medicine," where our drugs are ineffective against even the most basic of infections. While investigating the side effects of antibiotics and how bacteria can develop resistance to them, researchers from MIT and Harvard have found that the drugs can actually work against the body, weakening the immune system's ability to fight off the bugs.
To prevent the possible "superbug" doomsday scenario, teams of scientists are developing new treatments that don't require drugs, such as antimicrobial materials, lights and predatory bacteria. But antibiotics will still play an important part in future treatments, as researchers discover new classes of them or supercharge old ones. And in that vein, it pays to have a better understanding of just what antibiotics are doing to the body.
The new study, conducted by researchers at Harvard, MIT, the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and the Broad Institute, aimed to investigate the ways in which antibiotics affected the body, and how those effects in turn impacted on both the invading bacteria and the host's immune cells.
"Antibiotics interact with cells, particularly immune cells, in ways we didn't expect," says Jason Yang, co-first author of the study. "And the biochemical context, altered by antibiotics and cells in the surrounding tissue, matters when you're trying to predict how a drug might work in different people or in different infections." The researchers infected mice with E. coli bacteria, and then treated them with a common antibiotic called ciprofloxacin.
In doing so, they found that the drug directly affected the tissues of the mice, which in turn changed the metabolites those cells released during the process of metabolism. And these changes were counterproductive, with the metabolites actually working to make the E. At the same time, the drugs can make the immune system less effective overall: Immune cells called macrophages were found to be less effective at fighting off infection, because the antibiotic choked out their respiration. "You generally assume that antibiotics will significantly impact the bacterial cells, and yet here they seem to be triggering responses in mammalian cells," says James Collins, senior author of the study.
"The drugs are producing changes that are actually counterproductive to the treatment effort.
They reduce the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics, and the drugs themselves reduce the functional benefit of the immune cells." While it sure doesn't sound like good news, the researchers say that it's helpful to improve our understanding of what antibiotics are doing to the immune system.
Next up, the researchers plan to conduct more detailed animal studies using other antibiotics, and possibly study the metabolites in human patients that are already
being treated with antibiotics to see how well the findings may translate across. The research was published in the journal Cell Host & Microbe .
1 Wag Himra Zone Health Department,Sekota, Ethiopia.
2 Department of Applied Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Hawassa University,Hawassa, Ethiopia. *Corresponding Author: Ephrem Abiy Wag Himra Zone Health Department Sekota, Ethiopia Tel: +251913020914 E-mail: [email protected] Received date: October 10, 2016; Accepted date: November 11, 2016; Published date:
November 14, 2016.
Anti-Bacterial Effect of Garlic ( Allium sativum ) against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from Patients Attending Hawassa Referral Hospital, Ethiopia.
Introduction: Emergence of methicillin drug resistance is evident and global challenge.
alternative antibiotics which are new, natural, plant based, cost effective and in toxic is the up to date task
for global health.
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-bacterial effect of garlic against clinical and standard isolates of S.
Methodology: The Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of garlic was investigated against Clinical and Standard isolates of S. coli by an Agar of both dilution and Cork borer techniques. Results and conclusions: The results showed that standard S.
coli were completely inhibited by 10 mg/ml and 15 mg/ml of agar media respectively and their clinical isolates were completely inhibited by 25 mg/ml, indicating that standard isolates are most sensitive and clinical isolates are least sensitive.
Amoxicillin and azithromycin
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